Literary tools

The whole list with examples at Literary Devises.

The rule of three

I began to be weary, of journeying and of the cold and of sitting still while being jarred and jolted about, and to look forward to my supper, a fire and a warm bed.
Susan Hill, The Woman In Black
One rule used twice in one sentence.

Alliteration

Repetition of similar sounds.
He was tall, talkative and always tardy.


Metaphor
A language figurative tool giving the object the additional characteristics, often used to reveal hidden features, feelings or emotions. Through a metaphor, an author shows us an object by depicting it and using a connection with something which is not, at first glance, similar. Metaphor is the art of poetry and writing, but also the part of everyday speech, and most of the idioms are metaphors. When a metaphor is used too often that the hidden message is lost, then it is called a dead metaphor and it is advisable not to use it in writing.

It is raining cats and dogs. Idiom and a dead metaphor.
The tv set in this room is an old dinosaur. Easy metaphor.
My soul was a lampless sea and she was the tempest. Hard metaphor.

Extended metaphor: when one idea is used in different perspectives or characteristics in a paragraph, the whole scene or a chapter.
My soul was a lampless sea and she was the tempest. Stormless days were rare, but we loved our boat. 

Mixed metaphor: when two different ideas are connected to one object creating rather comic effect - avoid it by all costs.
She is a rock in the hot water. 
She is an iceberg in the hot water.  




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